The General Electric Company will sell China 220 of its largest diesel electric locomotives in a deal that may add several hundred jobs at G.E.’s locomotive plant here next year, company officials announced.

The model C36-7 locomotives will be shipped between the spring and the end of 1984 in what G.E. called its ”single biggest order for a single production run.”

Company officials said the Chinese had asked that the purchase price not be disclosed.

The New York Times, Jan. 29, 1984


Produced by General Electric Transortation in the United States, the ND5 deisel locomotive is abound for China in 1984. These pictures are collected from open sources, which recorded the marvellous, and original scene.


The ND5 diesel locomotive is one of the diesel locomotive models used by Chinese railways. The ND5 diesel locomotive is a diesel locomotive for mainline freight manufactured by the General Electric Company (GE) Transportation Systems Commercial Branch. The first ND5 locomotives, numbers 001 to 220, were built from July to December 1984. The remaining second batch of 202 locomotives, numbered 221 to 422, were built between October 1985 and January 1986.




In the early 1980s, after the implementation of reform and opening up in China, the national economy developed rapidly, the volume of railway passengers and freight increased sharply, and the railway transportation capacity was in full swing. The lack of freight capacity led to a large backlog of goods and materials to be transported in various places, and the insufficient number of high-power diesel locomotives was one of them. an important reason. The Dongfeng 4 diesel locomotive, which had been put into mass production at that time, not only had insufficient production capacity and could not meet the demand, but also had many problems in diesel engine, transmission system and manufacturing process, and the reliability and production quality of the locomotive needed to be improved. After research, the Ministry of Railways of the People’s Republic of China decided to import a batch of high-power diesel locomotives from abroad in accordance with the principle of “combining technology and trade” to ease the tension in the use of locomotives. Since late January 1983, the Ministry of Railways has dispatched personnel to inspect diesel locomotive manufacturing plants in the Soviet Union, Canada and the United States.


At the same time, U.S. technology export controls to China have also been gradually loosened since the 1980s. In 1981, when President Reagan entered the White House, out of political, economic and global strategic needs, he relaxed export controls to China and made major policy adjustments. In June 1983, the U.S. government announced that it would upgrade China to “Friendly but nonaligned” status, placing it in Group V alongside most other Western and developing countries. This policy change has greatly improved the technological level of the technologies and products that American companies can export to China, and has promoted the export of American technologies and products to China.




A senior Chinese economic official said here today that Peking intended to sign contracts this year to import $1 billion worth of advanced Western technology and equipment.

The official, Yuan Baohua, deputy chairman of the State Economic Commission and president of the China Enterprise Management Association, said that 1,000 contracts were involved. He spoke at a gathering of businessmen and bankers organized by the European Management Forum, a Geneva- based business advisory body.

”The imports of foreign capital and foreign technology are now major policies for China’s economic construction,” Mr. Yuan said, speaking through an interpreter.

China Plans to Spend 1 Billion on Technology from the West, The New York Times


Importing ND5s


Against this background, China selected the C36-7 diesel locomotive of the US General Electric Transportation Systems Commercial Branch after repeated comparisons. The C36-7 locomotive is a high-power diesel locomotive launched by General Electric in 1978, and it is also the last model in the “Dash-7” series. On October 31, 1983, a sales contract and a technology transfer contract for China to order the first batch of 220 diesel locomotives from General Electric Company of the United States were signed in Beijing at an import price of US$980,000 each. This was undoubtedly an important and large order for GE’s locomotive division, which was in a recession at the time. A GE spokesman had said that it was the “single biggest order for a single production batch” received by the company. single production run) and can create hundreds of jobs for the Yili factory.


This batch of locomotives is designated as ND5 according to the Chinese railway locomotive nomenclature, in which “N” stands for diesel locomotive, “D” stands for electric drive, and “5” stands for China’s fifth imported electric drive diesel locomotive. According to the contract, the ND5 locomotive will be produced by GE’s Erie plant in Pennsylvania, and deliveries will begin in 1984 . In addition, GE is also responsible for the three-year or 600,000-km guarantee period for the ND5 locomotives, during which it sends personnel to China to provide after-sales technical services, and it will compensate for all quality and technical problems that occur.


The first batch of 74 ND5 locomotives arrived in Tianjin Port, China in September 1984. Locomotive No. 0002 fell into the water due to the wrong lifting center of gravity when unloading in Tianjin Port. The ND5 locomotive put into use, after arriving at the Nanjing East Locomotive Depot of the attached section, was installed with the locomotive signal, automatic parking device, train wireless dispatching telephone and other equipment of China Railway standard. The train is put into normal service. Another batch of 104 ND5 locomotives arrived at Shanghai Port, China in November 1984. The No. 0111 locomotive fell into the water and was scrapped when the crane wire was broken when unloading. The first batch of 220 ND5 locomotives was delivered in 1984.


After the first batch of ND5 (also known as Type I) locomotives were put into use, in view of the good performance of the locomotives, China again ordered a second batch of 200 ND5 locomotives (also known as Type II) from General Electric Company in 1985. Within 1987 Delivery is complete. The second batch of locomotives has improved a number of equipment and parts of the locomotives according to the actual application in China and the defects of the first batch of locomotives. The overall structure of the two batches of locomotives is basically the same. In appearance, the cab of the second batch of locomotives is more spacious, and the front window viewing glass is enlarged; The number of Type I locomotives is 0001~0220, with a total of 220 units, and the body is painted in emerald green; the number of Type II locomotives is 0221~0422, with a total of 202 units, and the body is painted in dark green . The 0421 and 0422 locomotives are ND5 locomotives newly built by General Electric Company to replace the 0002 and 0111 locomotives that fell into the water during unloading in 1984.

Actual Usage



Since 1984, a large number of ND5 diesel locomotives have been assigned to Nanjing East Locomotive Depot of Shanghai Railway Bureau (Ningdong Section of Shanghai Railway Bureau), Jinan West Locomotive Depot of Jinan Railway Bureau (Western Section of Jinan Railway Bureau), and Fengtai Locomotive Depot of Beijing Railway Bureau (Jing Bureau of Beijing Bureau) Feng section), Shenyang Railway Bureau Dalian Locomotive Depot. Among them, the Nanjing East Locomotive Depot has the largest number of locomotives, and is equipped with nearly 200 ND5 locomotives during peak hours, which are jointly controlled and used by the Bengbu, Nanjing East and Nanxiang Locomotive Depots. The heavy-duty freight train traction task of the railway and the Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway; and the Jinan West Locomotive Depot is also equipped with ND5 locomotives at the same time as the Nanjing East Locomotive Depot. During peak hours, the number exceeds 120, which are put into use in the Jinan West to Xuzhou (Xuzhou North) section of the Jinan-Pu Railway. , to replace the forward steam locomotive. The Fengtai Locomotive Depot has been equipped with ND5 locomotives since 1984, serving as the heavy-duty freight trains and coal combination trains of the Fengsha Railway (the collective name of the Fengsha Railway, the Datong-Shacheng section of the Beijing-Baobao Railway), the Beijing-Qinhuangdao Railway, and the Jingyuan Railway. Towing tasks, among which the combined trains of Fengsha Railway and Beijing-Qindao Railway have a weight of 7,400 tons. They are towed by two ND5 locomotives and carry out cross-section round trips in three locomotive sections (the section from Datong to Zhangjiakou is undertaken by Zhangjiakou locomotive depot, Zhangjiakou Fengtai Locomotive Depot is responsible for the section to Shuangqiao, and Nankou Locomotive Depot is responsible for the section from Shuangqiao to Qinhuangdao. , and implement the long road from Fengtai west to Yuanping. The Dalian Locomotive Depot has been equipped with ND5 locomotives since 1986, mainly to dredge the Dalian Port, reduce the backlog of goods and improve the sea-rail combined transportation capacity, and undertake the task of pulling the freight trains of the Shenyang-Dalian Railway.

ND5机车在我国铁路干线投入使用后,经济效益十分突出,加速了我国铁路干线牵引机车的内燃;到20世纪80年代末,ND5机车已经使用了近5年,恢复了原来的价值。投资。根据运营部门的实际使用经验,一般认为ND5机车油耗低但牵引力大,牵引电机性能好,电气元件绝缘性能优良,增压器故障率低,维修方便,设计合理,可靠性高。一辆ND5机车万吨公里油耗比东风4、东风4B机车低约20%,但牵引能力相当于东风4机车1.25 ~ 1.4辆,有效提高了主干线牵引等级。交通量大幅增加,缓解了交通紧张的局面;随着长途行车系统的实施,机车的运行效率大大提高。例如,沪宁铁路ND5型投入使用后,上、下货运列车牵引固定车次分别从3000吨、3400吨增加到3400吨、3800吨。此外,ND5机车还加快了中国铁路重载运输的发展。1985年,铁道部选择了凤沙铁路和京-琴铁路为试点,开始重载列车合二为一,将两列3700吨级的煤炭列车合二为一,由两列ND5机车组成(其中一列位于列车中间),总重7400吨的合二为一重载列车从大同拖到秦皇岛;从徐州北到南京东的京沪铁路也从1992年开始运行。ND5机车载重5300吨,单机载重4000吨。

After the ND5 locomotive was put into use on the main railway lines in China, its economic benefits were very prominent, and it accelerated the internal combustion of traction locomotives on the main railway lines in China; by the end of the 1980s, the ND5 locomotive had been used for nearly 5 years, and it had recovered its original value. investment. According to the actual use experience of the operating department, it is generally believed that the ND5 locomotive has low fuel consumption but large traction, good traction motor performance, excellent electrical components insulation performance, low supercharger failure rate, convenient maintenance, reasonable design and high reliability . The fuel consumption per 10,000-ton kilometer of an ND5 locomotive is about 20% lower than that of Dongfeng 4 and Dongfeng 4B locomotives, but the traction capacity is equivalent to 1.25 to 1.4 Dongfeng 4 locomotives, which effectively improves the traction rating of the main trunk line. The traffic volume has increased greatly, which has eased the situation of transportation tension; with the implementation of the long-distance road ride system, the efficiency of locomotive operation has been greatly improved. For example, after the ND5 type was put into use on the Shanghai-Nanjing Railway, the traction fixed numbers of the up and down freight trains were increased from 3,000 tons and 3,400 tons to 3,400 tons and 3,800 tons respectively. In addition, the ND5 locomotive has also accelerated the development of China’s railway heavy-haul transportation. In 1985, the Ministry of Railways selected the Fengsha Railway and the Beijing-Qindao Railway as pilots, and began to combine heavy-haul trains, combining two 3,700-ton coal trains into a group consisting of two ND5 locomotives (one of which is located in the middle of the train) The combined heavy-duty train with a total weight of 7,400 tons towed from Datong to Qinhuangdao; and the Beijing-Shanghai Railway from Xuzhou North to Nanjing East has also been running since 1992. Heavy-duty freight trains with ND5 locomotives pulling 5,300 tons and single machines pulling 4,000 tons .


Technology Transfer


At the same time of importing the ND5 locomotive, China also signed a contract for the transfer of key components of the locomotive manufacturing technology with General Electric Company. GE752AF8 traction motor, auxiliary motor, electronic control products, constant power excitation device, wheelset anti-idling device, exhaust gas turbocharger, 7FDL-16 diesel engine main components such as cylinder liner, piston, etc. The main body of the introduction is the locomotive electric drive system of General Electric, and other mechanical parts products also have their own characteristics. The advantages of these products on the ND5 locomotive are precisely the weak link of the domestic diesel locomotive technology in China at that time.

根据合同,大连机车车辆厂与通用电气公司合作,在4年内完成了与通用电气公司同等质量的样机的试制和验证,以检验对技术的消化吸收和掌握程度。从1985年起,大连工厂和通用电气公司在东风4B型内燃机车的基础上开始研制东风6型内燃机车。机车整体结构和机械部分由大连工厂设计制造,电气传动系统和控制系统由通用电气公司设计制造。在1989年4月前二台东风- 6型火车头完成并且投入测试。

According to the contract, Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Works cooperated with General Electric Company to complete the trial production and verification of the prototype with the same quality as General Electric Company in 4 years to test the degree of digestion, absorption and mastery of technology . From 1985, Dalian Plant and General Electric Company began to develop Dongfeng 6 diesel locomotive based on Dongfeng 4B diesel locomotive. The overall structure and mechanical parts of the locomotive are designed and manufactured by Dalian Plant, and the electrical drive system and control system are designed and manufactured by General Electric Company. The first two Dongfeng 6 locomotives were completed and put into testing in April 1989.


Exiting the fleet


With the improvement of the electrification rate of China’s railways, most of the main line freight tasks originally undertaken by ND5 have been replaced by electric locomotives (such as SS4G and HXD2B). During the period, he served as Linke traction and other tasks. In addition, some ND5 locomotives have reached the service life, and many ND5 diesel locomotives produced earlier have been scrapped and dismantled. There are currently 5 ND5s on display, including three Type I (No. 0001, No. 0016, No. 0049) and two Type II (No. 0001 (formerly No. 0242), No. 0422).


Overall technical structures

ND5型内燃机车采用钢板与型钢焊接而成的外走廊罩式车体结构,配备单驾驶室。机车由前至后依次为沙箱、司机室及电气控制室、动力室、冷却室。驾驶室里有两个控制台。为方便查看和操作,I型机车驾驶员控制台为45°倾斜;而II型机车改为国产机车传统的横向前置布局,增加了驾驶员数量。驾驶室内部配备了碰撞梁和玻璃纤维隔音。驾驶室前后各有四扇和两扇玻璃窗;为方便II型机车,对车头前玻璃窗进行了放大,对车头砂箱的短罩进行了相应的高度降低。防冻开关。机车动力室配有柴油机机组、硅整流器、励磁机和辅助发电机。机车尾部的冷却室设有冷却水系统和冷却风扇。冷却室顶部为干式散热器,两侧设有制动电阻。车辆底部两个转向架之间有一个油箱和一个总气缸,油箱容量为9900升。火车头还配备了重新连接装置。空气制动器为26 l型制动器,具有阶段性解除作用,紧急制动时可自动撒砂切断动力。

The ND5 diesel locomotive adopts the outer corridor hood type body structure welded by steel plate and section steel, and is equipped with a single cab. The locomotive from front to back is the sand box, the driver’s cab and the electrical control room, the power room, and the cooling room. There are two consoles in the driver’s cab. In order to take into account the convenience of viewing and manipulation, the driver console of the Type I locomotive is inclined at 45°; while the Type II locomotive is changed to the traditional horizontal front layout of the domestic locomotive, which increases the number of drivers. The interior of the driver’s cab is equipped with crash beams and fiberglass sound insulation. There are four and two glass windows in the front and rear of the driver’s cab; the front glass window is enlarged for Type II locomotive for convenience, and the short hood of the front sand box is correspondingly lowered in height. Anti-frost. The locomotive power room is equipped with diesel engine unit, silicon rectifier, exciter and auxiliary generator. The cooling chamber at the rear of the locomotive is equipped with a cooling water system and a cooling fan. The top of the cooling chamber is a dry radiator, and there are braking resistors on both sides. There is a fuel tank and a total air cylinder between the two bogies at the bottom of the vehicle, and the fuel tank capacity is 9900 liters. The locomotive is also equipped with a reconnection device. The air brake is a 26-L type brake, which has a stage-relieving effect, and can automatically spread sand and cut power during emergency braking.



1990年10月4日1时许,北京铁路局丰台机辆段负责内虎云第16次货运列车的ND5 0158机车在大秦线K7+500与内虎云发生14次追尾事故,导致内虎云第16次货运列车机车及后方1~3辆车发生倾覆,4、9、14、15、18、19、20辆车脱轨;尾部第一、二车倾覆,第8、12、16、18、24、25车脱轨;2名司机受轻伤,ND5-0158机车报废,货车报废24辆,报废16辆,报废3辆,报废4辆。构成了一起重大的火车追尾事故。事故发生的原因是,车站工作人员在午睡时非法使用了有故障的按钮。

At 1:00 a.m. on October 4, 1990, the ND5 0158 locomotive of the Fengtai Locomotive Depot of the Beijing Railway Bureau, which was responsible for the 16th cargo train of Neihuyun, had rear-end collisions with Neihuyun 14 times at K7+500 of the Daqin Line, resulting in On the 16th Neihuyun freight train, the locomotive and the 1~3 vehicles at the rear were subverted, and the 4th, 9th, 14th, 15, 18, 19, and 20th vehicles were derailed; the 14th Neihuyun The first and second vehicles in the tail were subverted , the 8th, 12th, 16th, 18th, 24th and 25th vehicles derailed; two drivers were slightly injured, the ND5-0158 locomotive was scrapped, 24 trucks were scrapped, 16 were broken, 3 were broken, and 4 were broken. constitutes a major train rear-end accident. The cause of the accident was that the station attendant took a nap and used the faulty button illegally.

In the early morning of April 30, 1993, the ND5 locomotive No. 0301 of the Dalian Locomotive Depot of the Dalian Railway Branch of the Shenyang Railway Bureau pulled the 044th freight train to an unguarded crossing at K243+350M between the Shenyang-Dalian Railway Fenshui and Dashiqiao. Running at a speed of 65 km/h to the crossing, the horn sounded to warn the driver. Due to the heavy fog at the time, when the train was about 20 meters away from the crossing, the driver discovered that an Icalus bus suddenly approached the crossing on the highway, and the locomotive immediately Emergency braking was adopted, but the braking was not enough to directly collide with the bus, causing 75 people in the car to die on the spot, 29 people, 6 people died when rescue was unsuccessful, 7 people were seriously injured, and 29 people were slightly injured.

2002年8月3日下午,上海铁路局蚌埠铁路分局京沪铁路武夷至弹子段,41098次货运列车于下午1时06分抵达弹子站,停在四路(下坡),共有19次。停车未采取防滑措施,导致停车在调车作业时向后滑动,挤开开关进入上行线路南京方向段。下午第1章。事故造成30010次列车南京东机务段主机车ND5 0032号机车断裂,列车后3艘贡多拉脱轨,京沪铁路中断3小时33分钟。

On the afternoon of August 3, 2002, between Wuyi and Danzi on the Beijing-Shanghai Railway, Bengbu Railway Branch of the Shanghai Railway Administration, the 41098 freight train arrived at Danzi Station at 1:06 pm and stopped at the fourth road (downhill), due to 19 of them. The parked car did not take anti-slip measures, which caused the parked car to slip backward during the shunting operation, squeeze the switch and enter the Nanjing direction section of the upward line. At 1:27 p.m. The collision caused the ND5 No. 0032 locomotive of the main locomotive in Nanjing East Locomotive Depot of the 30010th train to be broken, and the three gondolas behind the train derailed, interrupting the Beijing-Shanghai railway for 3 hours and 33 minutes.

2012年2月21日下午,上海铁路局合肥机务段阜阳作业车间DF4C-5155机车司机王某和学习司机赵某拟承担货运列车牵引任务41091列。14时44分,在辅维修站维修线接车,维修工作开始。14点52分,司机在2号房间抛车。15点03分,正在学习的司机正在做电动作测试,15点06分,司机独自在2号房下了飞机。15:07,了解驾驶员在启动状态下对柴油机进行加速和减速电动作试验。此时驾驶员在II室松开机车自阀,准备刹车试验。当机车移动时与ND5- 0332机车相撞。分流冲突构成首被告一般事故。ND5-0332机车主梁变形严重,机车几乎报废。事故发生时,一名电焊工正在沟里焊接装有车轴的油箱。车上有几个人正在进行维修工作。

On the afternoon of February 21, 2012, the DF4C-5155 locomotive driver Wang and the learning driver Zhao of the Fuyang Operation Workshop of the Hefei Locomotive Depot of the Shanghai Railway Administration planned to undertake 41,091 freight train towing tasks. At 14:44, the vehicle was picked up at the maintenance line of the auxiliary maintenance depot, and the maintenance work began. At 14:52, the driver was throwing the car in Room II. At 15:03, the learning driver was doing an electrical action test, and at 15:06, the driver got off the plane alone in Room II. At 15:07, learn that the driver does the diesel engine speed-up and speed-down electrical action test under the starting state. At this time, the driver relieves the locomotive self-valve in room II and prepares for the brake test. When the locomotive moves and the ND5- 0332 The locomotive collided. A shunting conflict constitutes a general D1 accident . The main beam of the ND5-0332 locomotive was seriously deformed, and the locomotive was nearly scrapped. At the time of the accident, an electric welder was welding the axle-holding oil tank in the ditch. Several people in the car were handling the maintenance work.

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